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What is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure) is a disease of vascular regulation which increases arterial pressure above the normal range and it is also called as blood pressure and blood pressure reading are given as two number.

  1.  Systolic hypertension-Equal the pressure in the heart as the heart contract.
  2.  Diastolic hypertension-Is the pressure in the arteries as the relax.

Hypertension is defined as average systolic blood pressure above 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure is 90 mm Hg, or both over sustained period .its called as a “silent killer” because usually don’t have any symptoms when blood pressure is too high.

High blood pressure increases the risk factor of stroke and heart disease. High blood pressure means the pressure of the blood in your blood vessel is higher than normal blood pressure.


Normal < 120 < 80
Pre-hypertension 120-139 80-89
Hypertension-1 140-159 90-89
Hypertension-2 >160 >100

There are two major types of high blood pressure

  1. Primary hypertension 
  2. secondary hypertension


Its due to unknown causes means no identifiable causes or without systemic cause, its called as essential hypertension.up to 95% of people have primary hypertension

  • Arterial degeneration
  • Prolonged mental tension
  • Hormonal and Metabolic Disturbance
  • Family History
  • Unhealthy dietary habit
  • Increase salt intake
  • Stress
  • Tension
  • Insufficient rest
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Tobacco
  • Lack of exercise
  • Excessive consumption of tea and coffee

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It’s due to pathological condition its called secondary hypertension. Some people have high blood pressure caused by an underlying condition. this type of hypertension called secondary hypertension. Tend to appear suddenly and cause high blood pressure than does primary hypertension

  • Kidney Problem (E.g. Pyelonephritis )
  • Endocrine Disorder (E.g.Diabities Mellitus)
  • Thyroid problem
  • Congenital deformities ( eg. Renal artery obstruction
  • Excessive body weight
  • Excessive sodium intake
  • In legal drugs taking
  • Smoking

Watch the details of hypertension in the video form


 It’s due to Anxiety only at a time of measuring B.P by doctor or nurse in the hospital and clinic.


It’s uncomplicated hypertension, usually of long duration and mild to moderate severity, may be primary and secondary.


It’s defined as an intermittent elevation of blood pressure with normal readings.

Diagnosis Of Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure)

Dignosis of hypertension

  • By measuring blood pressure
  • Physical examination
  • X-ray
  • Urine test
  • Blood test
  • ECG
  • Cholesterol screening


There is 3 control system play a major role in monitoring blood pressure.
  • Arterial baroreceptor
  • Regulation of body fluid volume
  • The renin-angiotensin system


1.Arterial Baroreceptor System

They are found in carotid sinus and wall of ventricles.B baroreceptors help to maintain blood pressure.
2.Regulation of Body fluid Volume
Change in body fluid that affects systemic arterial pressure
abnormalities in the transport of Na ion
Increase Na, K,H2O in blood
Increase blood volume
increase blood pressure

3. Renin-Angiotensin System

1. Renin-Secret in kidney cell in the form of protein
2. Angiotensin-Angiotensin is found in the plasma from a pressure plasma alpha 2 globulin and the Angiotensin-1 is (Decapeptide) Angiotensin-2 is an (Octapeptide), Angiotensin-3 is a (Heptapeptde)
Increase the sympathetic nervous system Activity
Inhibit sodium excretion
increase blood pressure


Hypertension is generally silent condition Mostly hypertension has no sign and symptoms but few people have

  • Shortness of  Breath
  • A headache
  • Chest Pain
  • Nose bleeding (Epistaxis) 
  • Dizziness
  • Blurring vision
  • cardiac asthma
  • Anginal Pain
  • Haematuria 
  • Palpitation
  • Tinnitus

But it is not a specific symptoms


Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to

  • Heart attack 
  • Strock
  • Hearl failure.
  • Weakened & narrowed blood vessels in kidneys.
  • Metabolic Syndrome.

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Hypertension Complications

Treatment Of Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure)

The aim of the treatment of hypertension is to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with persistently raised BP by lowering it to an acceptable level with minimum convince to the patient.

The treatment of hypertension depends on your type of hypertension means your doctor determines which type of hypertension is causes you then suggest to treatment.

  1. Primary hypertension treatment
  2. Secondary Hypertension


Hypertension treatment

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor – They inhibit Angiotensin 1 and 2.

  • Captopril
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril
  • Ramipril
  • Perindopril
  • Fosinopril

Calcium Channel Blockers-Prevent Stimulation of beta adrenergic receptor of sympathetic nervous system .beta adrenergic receptor causes vasoconstriction vessels.

  • Amlodipine
  • Nifedipine
  • Lacidipine
  • Felodipine
  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem

Beta-Adrenergic Blocker

  • Propanolol
  • Atenolol
  • Metoprolol

Alpha Adrenergic blocker

  • Prazosin
  • Terazosin
  • Doxazosin
  • Phentolamine
  • Phenoxybenzamine

Beta +Alpha Adrenergic blocker

  • Labetalol
  • Carvedilol

Central Sympatholytics

  • Clonidine
  • Methyldopa


They cause widening of blood vessels and therefore an increase in blood fluid.

  • Arteriolar– Hydralazine, Diazoxide, Minoxidil.
  • Arteriolar- Venous: Sodium nitroprusside.

Direct Renin Inhibitor 

They act by blocking the catalytic activity of renin and inhibiting the production of angiotensin 1 and 2.

  • Aliskiren


They Increase frequency of urine.

  • Thiazides-.Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, Indapamide.
  • High ceiling-.Furosemide.
  • K+ Sparing.-.Spironolactone, Amiloride.

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Ricks Factor

  1. To much use SALT in diet-To, much of Salt used in diet can retain a fluid then the arteries constrict and this condition causes blood pressure.
  2. The little amount of use of Potassium in diet-Potassium is helped the balance of sodium in cells.potassium is help to relax smooth muscles which lower blood pressure.
  3. Overweight or Obesity -The Overweight is required more oxygen to supply all tissues so the blood volume circulation is increased at blood vessels.
  4. Alcohol use to much-Drinking to much alcohol can cause hypertension, alcohol activating an adrenergic system and causing a constriction of a blood vessel, and its increase in blood vessel flow and heart rate.
  5. Take to much stress– More stress is increased blood pressure.

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  1. Gating Daily exercise
  2. Reducing overweight
  3. Reduce intake of more salt
  4. Reduce too much using smoking and alcohol
  5. Manage your stress and getting Meditation

Lifestyle & Home Remedies

Lifestyle changes can help you control and prevent high blood pressure even if you are taking blood pressure medication .here what you can do.

Eat Healthy Foods -Try the dietary approach to stop hypertension. diet which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grain, and low-fat dairy foods. Get excessive potassium which can help prevent and control high blood pressure.

Decrease the Salt In Diet-Although 2,400 milligram of sodium a day limit for otherwise healthy adults, limit sodium intake to 1500 milligram a day will have a more dramatic effect on blood pressure.

Maintain Healthy weight-If overweight,  losing even 5 pounds (2.3kg) can lower blood pressure.

Monitor Blood pressure at Home– Home blood pressure monitoring can help the patient keep a closer tab on his blood pressure, show if medication is working and even alert the patient and doctor to potential complications.

Increase physical Activity– Regular physical activity can help lower blood pressure and keep weight under control.strive for at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day.

Don’t Take Smoke-Tobacco to injure blood vessel walls and speeds up the process of hardening of the arteries.

Manage Stress- Reduce stress as much as possible. Practice healthy coping techniques such as muscle relaxation and deep breathing. getting plenty of sleep can help too.

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