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Sinusitis Causes, Symptoms & Treatment ( Sinus Infection )

Hello, readers welcome to medico IQ. In this article, we give about the full specification of sinusitis. like Sinusitis causes, symptoms and treatment

What is a Sinus Infection ( Sinusitis )

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal. Which may or may not be a result of infection from bacteria, viral fungal, allergic, or autoimmune issues. Sinuses are a hollow space inside the nasal bone filled with air paranasal sinus is called sinusitis

A healthy sinus filled with the air but when they filled and blocked with liquid, mucus, germs so it can cause the sinuses infection.

The conditions that can cause Sinus blockage

  1. Common Cold
  2. Nasal Polyps ( Small growth in the lining of the nose )
  3. Allergic rhinitis ( swelling of the lining of the nose )

It is characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Maxillary and Ethmoid most frequently involved.


What is sinus

Sinus is a hollow air-filled cavity, They lined by respiratory mucous membrane Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium. The ethmoid and maxillary are present at birth and the 2nd frontal sinuses developed during the 2nd year and the sphenoid sinus developed during the 3rd-5th year.

Paranasal Sinuses

There are four Pair Paranasal Sinuses

  1. Frontal Sinuses-They is located above the eyes in the forehead bone.
  2. Maxillary Sinuses-They is located in the Cheekbone.
  3. Ethmoid Sinuses-They is located between Eyes and Nose.they also called the ethmoid labyrinth.
  4. Sphenoid Sinuses-They is located in the body of the sphenoid.



Function Of Sinuses

  1. Commonly their exact function is unknown.
  2. Protect the eye.
  3. Reduce the weight of the skull.
  4. Increase the olfactory surface area.
  5. A resonator of the voice.

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Sinusitis Pathophysiology 

The most common causes of sinusitis are upper respiratory tract infection of viral origin.

Obstruction of sinus Ostia

Decreased Mucociliary Clearance

Development of Viscous Secretion

Promotion Of Condition for bacterial growth

Cised acute Bacterial Sinusitis

 Sinusitis Causes

When a person has a cold then allergies sinus tissues make more mucous and become swollen. The most common bacterial agent which cause they sinusitis are

It is possible that constant exposure to inhaled allergens, that are present year-round, such as House Dust Mites, Pets, Mold (fungus), and cockroaches they all cause the chronic inflammation of the nose and sinuses.

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Risk Factors



  1. Using decongestant nasal spray too much.
  2. Constant exposure inhales such as smoking cigarettes.
  3. Swimming or diving structure problems such as deviated septum.
  4. Adenoids
  5. Infected tonsils
  6. Dental infection
  7. Small sinus Ostia.
  8. Nasal polyps
  9. Cystic fibrosis.


It always involves the nasal swelling and buildup of mucus, but there are different classification health expert usually cases of sinuses such as-

  • Acute cases -: Which lasts for 4 weeks or less and is the most common of acute sinusitis.
  • Subacute cases  -: Which last 4-12 week last symptoms longer than the normal period.
  • Chronic cases  -: Which last more than 12 weeks and continue to return for month or year.
  • Recurrent cases -: This involves several acute attacks within a year.


Acute inflammation of sinus mucosa is usually affected by the upper respiratory tract infection. If the inflammation produces by the cold lead to bacterial infection. The most common causes of acute sinusitis start with a common cold, which is caused by a virus.

The inflammation caused by the cold and nasal problem result in swelling of the mucous membrane of sinuses, and this can lead to air and mucus becoming trapped behind the narrowed opening of the sinuses.

Sinusitis Symptoms 

Sign and symptoms of the acute sinusitis depend upon the sinus involve:


Maxillary Sinusitis-: Can cause pain or pressure in the maxillary area (cheek, jaw, gum, and teeth) cheek become reddened, edematous, and tender to the touch.pain is aggravated on stooping or coughing.

Frontal Sinusitis-: Can cause pain or pressure in the frontal sinus cavity. Pain is localized over the forehead and the patient complaint of frontal headache. The pain is severe in the morning and gradually subsides toward noon as the infected material gets drained out from the sinus.

Ethmoid Sinusitis-: In ethmoid sinusitis, the pain is present is localized over the bridge of the nose inner canthus and between behind the eyes.

Sphenoid Sinusitis: Sphenoid sinusitis can cause pain or pressure present behind the eyes but often refers to the vertex or occiput of the head.

Other Symptoms

  • Malaise
  • Sore throat.
  • Cough that may be more severe at night.
  • Mucopurulent nasal discharge.
  • Decrease a sense of smell.
  • Tenderness and applying pressure.
  • Bad breath

Diagnostic Test

Acute sinusitis is diagnosed doctors will carry out a physical examination and noting the symptoms asking for the previous history. Which include the doctors may visually examine the nasal tissue or cavity with a light source or smell.

The X-ray examination of doctors to the patient for paranasal sinuses, an occipitomental view is helpful. To check the anterior or posterior rhinoscopy revels the congestion of nasal mucosa and the presence of mucus in the nose.

In cases of severe sinusitis persistent, a computed tomography (CT) is also used to confirm sinusitis.

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Antibiotic Therapy

The vast majorities of cases of acute sinusitis are due to viral etiology and thus resolves without antibiotics. Antibiotic is usually taken from 3-28 days, depend on the type of antibiotics.

If the symptoms are prolonged amoxicillin is a reasonable first choice with amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) being indicated for the patient who fails amoxicillin alone.

Fluoroquinolones and some of the newer macrolide antibiotics such as clarithromycin, and doxycycline are used in a patient who is allergic to penicillin. The courses of treatment are usually given for 10-15 days.

Nasal De-contestants

The use of decongestants such as pseudoephedrine and oxymetazoline help in relieving the nasal obstruction and mucosal swelling therapy improving drainage of the sinus can be helpful if used for no more than three to four days. Guaifenesin, a mucolytic agent may also be effective in reducing nasal congestion.


Antihistamine drugs is required control to allergies. If allergies are suspected along with sinusitis. This may include diphenhydramine, cetirizine, and fexofenadine and a nasal steroid spray that reduces the swelling around the sinus passages and allows the sinuses to drain.

Conservative Measurement

Over-the-counter (OTC) medication such as acetaminophen ( paracetamol ) and ibuprofen can relieve some of the symptoms associated with sinusitis, such as headache, pressure pain, and fatigue.

Steam inhalation

 Steam inhalation medication (Tr. Benzo and Menthol) through the nose are soothing.




However, a healthcare provider may recommend a variety of measures that may provide some benefits. Keep the nose as moist as possible with frequent use of the saline spray.

Wash your hand frequently with soap and water, especially before your meals. Avoid upper respiratory infection. Minimize contact with people who have a cold.

Use a humidifier, if necessary. If the air in your home is dry, such as if you have forced hot air heat, adding moisture to the air may help prevent sinusitis. Be sure the humidifier stays clean and free of mold with a regular, thorough cleaning.

Avoid very dry indoor environment. But be aware that if allergic to molds, house dust mites, or cockroaches, a humid environment may also create a problem. Avoid exposure to irritants such as smoke and cigarette.

Avoid long periods of swimming in pools treated with chlorine, which irritant the lining of the nasal sinuses. Avoid water diving, which forces water into the sinuses from the nasal passages


Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal, which infects bacteria, viral fungal, and allergic. sinus is a hollow space inside the nasal bone on the body. sinusitis affects paranasal sinuses. This is 4 types 1)Acute sinusitis, 2)chronic sinusitis, 3)subacute sinusitis, 4)recurrent sinusitis. they diagnosis by physical examination and X-ray examination. and they cure by antibiotics, nasal congestion, antihistamine, and steam inhalation.

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